For animals like deer and raccoons you can use urine as the simplest deterent. You can use your own and/or purchase real or synthetic mountain lion urine. Another great way of deterring these animals is using a motion activated sprinkler, although if your plants are flowering you might not want to get them wet. To keep birds out you can buy netting which will keep them out quite effectively. For gophers you can put a stake in the ground that deters them with sound. You can also dig a trench around the garden and fill it with chicken wire, let them take a bite out of that! JUICY FRUIT GUM actually WORKS! Ball up a piece of gum and toss it in the gopher hole, they cannot resist the gum. The gum will kill them dead. Not only do you eliminate the pest, but you do it cheaply and without toxins.